Coffee - interesting facts
Dzisiejszy artykuł dotyczy jednego z najpopularniejszych napoi świata - kawy. Dowiemy się co to jest kawa, skąd pochodzi, jakie są jej rodzaje, a także kilka ciekawostek na jej temat.
Coffee is one of the most popular beverages worldwide. It is a brewed beverage prepared from roasted seeds, called coffee beans. Coffee berries, which contain the coffee bean, are produced by several species of small evergreen bush of the genus Coffea. Arabica, Robusta and Liberia are the three main types of commercially produced coffee bean. Due to its caffeine content, coffee has a stimulating effect in humans. Coffee is responsible for about 75% of all the caffeine consumed in the world. Robusta has twice as much caffeine as Arabica.
It is believed that coffee was first consumed in the highlands of Ethiopia in the ninth century. From there, it spread to Yemen and Egypt, and by the 15th century, had reached Turkey, Azerbaijan, Persia, and northern Africa. From the Muslim world, coffee spread to Italy, then to the rest of Europe, to Indonesia, and to the Americas.
Coffee was initially used for spiritual reasons. At least 1,000 years ago, traders brought coffee across the Red Sea into Arabia, where Muslim monks began cultivating the shrub in their gardens. At first, the Arabians made wine from the pulp of the fermented coffee berries. This beverage was used during religious ceremonies.
Coffee has played an important role in many societies throughout history. It became the substitute beverage in spiritual practices where wine was forbidden. As a result, the Ethiopian Church banned its secular consumption until the reign of Emperor Menelik II of Ethiopia. It was banned in Ottoman Turkey in the 17th century for political reasons, and was associated with rebellious political activities in Europe. A contemporary example of coffee prohibition can be found in The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. The organization claims that it is both physically and spiritually unhealthy to consume coffee. Quite a number of members of the Seventh-day Adventist Church also avoid caffeinated drinks.
The history of coffee, while hard to verify to accuracy, legend a sheepherder who realized the effects of coffee while tending his sheep. His sheep became very active when they ate a certain type of berry off a plant. He tried them himself, and felt the same effect. Rumor has it that a monk told him to be careful of the devil’s fruit. However, it is also rumoured that the monks used the fruit to stay awake and pray.
Another wide spread legend claims an Arabian was banished to the desert. He boiled and ate an unknown plant. He was able to survive in the desert on the plant. The residents of a town close by felt the survival was a religious sign. The plant was then named Mocha, after that town.
Today, millions of people enjoy their coffee throughout the day. Coffee is the most popular drink in the world with around half-a-trillion cups consumed each year. Coffee comes in many brands and many flavors. You can buy ground coffee or coffee beans at most any grocery store. There are also gourmet coffees to choose from Businesses such as Starbuck’s Coffee are million dollar industries, offering you the convenience of coffee any way you want it.
Coffee is an important export commodity. In 2004, coffee was the top agricultural export for 12 countries, and in 2005, it was the world’s seventh-largest legal agricultural export by value. The Americas produce about 70% of the world's coffee; Brazil accounts for 30% and Colombia 12%. 25 million people are employed in the world's coffee industry.
Some controversy is associated with coffee cultivation and its impact on the environment. Many studies have examined the relationship between coffee consumption and certain medical conditions; whether the overall effects of coffee are positive or negative is still disputed.
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Lista najtrudniejszych słówek wraz z tłumaczeniem i wymową:
seeds /siːdz/ - nasiona, ziarna
spiritual /ˈspɪrɪtjʊəl/ - duchowy, religijny
cultivate /ˈkʌltɪveɪt/ - uprawiać
shrub /ʃrʌb/ - krzew
secular /ˈsɛkjʊlə/ - świecki
banned /bænd/ - zakazane
contemporary /kənˈtɛmpərəri/ - współcześnie
accuracy /ˈækjʊrəsi/ - dokładność, ścisłość
sheepherder - owczarz
survive /səˈvaɪv/ - przetrwać
ground coffee /graʊnd ˈkɒfi/ - kawa mielona
grocery store /ˈgrəʊsəri stɔː/ - sklep spożywczy
commodity kəˈmɒdɪti/ - towar
agricultural /ˌægrɪˈkʌlʧərəl/ - rolniczy
cultivation /ˌkʌltɪˈveɪʃən/ - uprawa
disputed /dɪsˈpjuːtɪd/ - sporny